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Ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with mechanical chest compressions: how often are two insufflations being given during the 3-second ventilation pauses?

Resuscitation 2024 May 8
BACKGROUND: Mechanical chest compression devices in 30:2 mode provide 3-second pauses to allow for two insufflations. We aimed to determine how often two insufflations are provided in these ventilation pauses, in order to assess if prehospital providers are able to ventilate out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients successfully during mechanical chest compressions.

METHODS: Data from OHCA cases of the regional ambulance service of Utrecht, The Netherlands, were prospectively collected in the UTrecht studygroup for OPtimal registry of cardIAc arrest database (UTOPIA). Compression pauses and insufflations were visualized on thoracic impedance and waveform capnography signals recorded by manual defibrillators. Ventilation pauses were analyzed for number of insufflations, duration of the subintervals of the ventilation cycles, and ratio of successfully providing two insufflations over the course of the resuscitation. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to accurately estimate proportions and means.

RESULTS: In 250 cases, 8473 ventilation pauses were identified, of which 4305 (51%) included two insufflations. When corrected for non-independence of the data across repeated measures within the same subjects with a mixed effects analysis, two insufflations were successfully provided in 45% of ventilation pauses (95% CI: 40-50%). In 19% (95% CI: 16-22%) none were given.

CONCLUSION: Providing two insufflations during pauses in mechanical chest compressions is mostly unsuccessful. We recommend developing strategies to improve giving insufflations when using mechanical chest compression devices. Increasing the pause duration might help to improve insufflation success.

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