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Presentation of Spontaneous Orbital Hemorrhage.

AIMS: To evaluate the presenting features of patients with nontraumatic orbital hemorrhage (NTOH) based on etiopathological factors.

METHODS: A retrospective case-note review for demographics and presenting features of patients with nontraumatic orbital hemorrhage. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: group I with known systemic vascular disease, group II with known or newly revealed orbital vascular anomalies, and group III with no known underlying vasculopathy.

RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen patients (68 female; 58%), with 37 (32%) in group I, 47 (40%) in group II, and 33 (28%) in group III. The average age at presentation was 70.9, 30.1, and 49.9 years, respectively, but the incidence peaked in the first decade for patients with underlying local vascular anomalies and in the eighth for those without. Of the group I patients with known cardiovascular disease, 43% were on antithrombotic agents. The most common presenting symptoms were orbital pain (59%), proptosis (56%), and diplopia (45%), while 13% had associated nausea or vomiting. Ipsilateral optic neuropathy occurred in 14% of cases, higher in group II (22%), along with nonaxial globe displacement (25%), reduced eye movements (47%), optic disc swelling (10%), and choroidal folds (9%). Imaging in patients without evident vascular anomalies showed that hemorrhages commonly occurred in the inferotemporal quadrant (32%), with about half of these having a "beached whale" configuration (46%).

CONCLUSION: Nontraumatic orbital hemorrhages affect all ages, typically presenting with acute proptosis or pain (over half), various degrees of visual impairment, and reduced motility. About half of those without vascular anomalies had cardiovascular risk factors, imaging often revealing an inferotemporal mass with a "beached whale" appearance.

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