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Inferior Ophthalmic Vein-Dominant Dural Cavernous Fistula Embolization via Combined Orbitotomy and Direct Puncture of Inferior Ophthalmic Vein: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Dural carotid-cavernous fistulas (DCF) typically drain into the superior ophthalmic vein. Predominant involvement of the inferior ophthalmic vein (IOV) is rare, with only 4 documented cases in the literature. Here, the authors describe a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with acute left-sided proptosis, dysmotility, and vision loss and was found to have an IOV-dominant type D dural carotid-cavernous fistulas. The fistula could not be embolized by transfemoral endovascular access or orbitotomy alone and was ultimately managed with combined orbitotomy and direct IOV puncture. All previous reports of IOV-dominant dural carotid-cavernous fistulas in the literature were similarly inaccessible via the transfemoral approach. This case highlights the challenges of IOV cutdown and proposes an alternative management strategy. When IOV cutdown is precluded by the fragile, collapsed, or deep nature of the vessel, conversion to percutaneous IOV puncture may offer a safe and effective approach and mitigate the risks of direct puncture alone.

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