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Bioengineered carbohydrate polymers for colon-specific drug release: Current trends and future prospects.

The worldwide health burden of colorectal cancer is still substantial, and traditional chemotherapeutic drugs sometimes have poor selectivity, which can result in systemic toxicity and unfavorable side effects. For colon-specific medication delivery, bioengineered carbohydrate polymers have shown promise as carriers. They may enhance treatment effectiveness while minimizing systemic exposure and associated side effects. The unique properties of these manufactured or naturally occurring biopolymers, such as hyaluronic acid, chitosan, alginate, and pectin, enable targeted medicine release. These qualities can be changed to meet the physiological needs of the colon. In the context of colorectal cancer therapy, this article provides a comprehensive overview of current developments and prospective future directions in the field of bioengineered carbohydrate polymer synthesis for colon-specific drug delivery. We discuss numerous techniques for achieving colon-targeted drug release, including enzyme-sensitive polymers, pH-responsive devices, and microbiota-activated processes. To increase tumor selectivity and cellular uptake, we also examine the inclusion of active targeting approaches, such as conjugating specific ligands. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of combination treatment strategies, which use the coadministration of numerous therapeutic medications to target multiple pathways implicated in cancer growth and address drug resistance mechanisms. We address recent biomimetic advances that potentially improve the biocompatibility, cellular uptake, and tumor penetration of carbohydrate polymer-based nanocarriers. These methods involve protein corona engineering and cell membrane coating. Furthermore, we look at the possibility of intelligent and sensitive systems that may adjust their behaviors in response to certain inputs or feedback loops, allowing for precise and regulated drug distribution.

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