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Distribution of Nosocomial Pathogens and Antimicrobial Resistance among Patients with Burn Injuries in China: A Comprehensive Research Synopsis and Meta-Analysis.

INTRODUCTION: Over the past decade, numerous studies have described the types of pathogens and their antibiotic resistance patterns in patients with burn injuries in China; however, the findings have generally been inconsistent. We conducted a literature search and meta-analysis to summarize the infection spectra and antimicrobial resistance patterns in patients with burn injuries.

METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biomedical Literature, Wanfang, and Weipu databases for relevant articles published between January 2010 and December 2023. The DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model was used to estimate the proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of pathogens among Chinese patients with burn injuries. Meta-regression analyses were performed to explore differences in the proportions of pathogens among different subgroups and their resistance patterns. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42024514386).

RESULTS: The database searches yielded 2017 records; after removing duplicates and conducting initial screening, 219 articles underwent full-text screening. Ultimately, 60 studies comprising a total of 62,819 isolated strains reported the proportions of pathogens in patients with burn injuries and were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analyses were conducted on 18 types of pathogens. The most common pathogens causing infections in Chinese patients with burn injuries were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Similar results were observed in the subgroup analysis focusing on wound infections. Since 2015, there has been a significant decrease in the proportion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (R2  = 4.89%) and a significant increase in the proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae (R2  = 9.60%). In terms of antibiotic resistance, there has been a significant decrease in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to multiple antibiotics and an increasing trend in the resistance of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

CONCLUSIONS: We systematically summarized the epidemiological characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns of pathogens among individuals suffering from burns in China, thus providing guidance for controlling wound infections and promoting optimal empirical antimicrobial therapy. The observed high levels of antibiotic resistance underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of antibiotic usage trends.

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