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Hemp seed protein and its hydrolysate vs. casein protein consumption in adults with hypertension: a double-blind crossover study.

BACKGROUND: The effects of consuming hemp seed protein (HSP) as well as its hydrolysate-derived bioactive peptide (HSP+) on blood pressure (BP) has not to our knowledge been investigated in humans.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how consumption of HSP and its hydrolysate modulates 24-hr systolic and diastolic BP (24-hrSBP and 24-hrDBP) and plasma biomarkers of BP compared to casein.

DESIGN: In a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design trial, 35 adults who had mild hypertension with SBP between 130 and 160 millimeters of mercury (mmHg), and DBP ≤110 mmHg were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to varying sequences of three 6-week treatments, 50 g/d of casein, HSP, and HSP, 45 g/d plus HSP derived bioactive peptides (HSP+), 5 g/d separated by 2-week washout period. Treatment effects were assessed by linear mixed model with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Compared with casein, after HSP+ consumption, 24hrSBP and 24hrDBP decreased from 135.1 and 80.0 mmHg to 128.1 ± 1.6 (P<.0001) and 76.0 ± 1.4 mmHg (P<.0001) respectively whereas these values were 133.5 ± 1.6 and 78.9 ± 1.4 after HSP consumption (P<.0001). There were no differences between the HSP and HSP+ consumption in plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, renin or Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations. However, these two treatments were able to lower both ACE and renin activities and raise NO concentration in plasma compared with casein.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that hemp protein consumption, as well as in combination with bioactive peptides, may have a role in the dietary management of hypertension. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03508895.

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