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In vitro activity of cefiderocol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from people with cystic fibrosis recovered during three multicentre studies in Spain.

OBJECTIVES: Despite the introduction of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is still a major pathogen in people with cystic fibrosis (pwCF). We determine the activity of cefiderocol and comparators in a collection of 154 P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from pwCF during three multicentre studies performed in 17 Spanish hospitals in 2013, 2017 and 2021.

METHODS: ISO broth microdilution was performed and MICs were interpreted with CLSI and EUCAST criteria. Mutation frequency and WGS were also performed.

RESULTS: Overall, 21.4% were MDR, 20.8% XDR and 1.3% pandrug-resistant (PDR). Up to 17% of the isolates showed a hypermutator phenotype. Cefiderocol demonstrated excellent activity; only 13 isolates (8.4%) were cefiderocol resistant by EUCAST (none using CLSI). A high proportion of the isolates resistant to ceftolozane/tazobactam (71.4%), meropenem/vaborbactam (70.0%), imipenem/relebactam (68.0%) and ceftazidime/avibactam (55.6%) were susceptible to cefiderocol. Nine out of 13 cefiderocol-resistant isolates were hypermutators (P < 0.001). Eighty-three STs were detected, with ST98 being the most frequent. Only one isolate belonging to the ST175 high-risk clone carried blaVIM-2. Exclusive mutations affecting genes involved in membrane permeability, AmpC overexpression (L320P-AmpC) and efflux pump up-regulation were found in cefiderocol-resistant isolates (MIC = 4-8 mg/L). Cefiderocol resistance could also be associated with mutations in genes related to iron uptake (tonB-dependent receptors and pyochelin/pyoverdine biosynthesis).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results position cefiderocol as a therapeutic option in pwCF infected with P. aeruginosa resistant to most recent β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations.

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