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Risk Factors Associated with First Time and Recurrent Shoulder Instability: A Systematic Review.

BACKGROUND: Shoulder instabilities constitute a large proportion of shoulder injuries and have a wide range of presentations. While evidence regarding glenohumeral dislocations and associated risk factors has been reported, less is known regarding the full spectrum of instabilities and their risk factors.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to identify modifiable risk factors to guide patient management decisions with regards to implementation of interventions to prevent or reduce the risk of shoulder instability.

STUDY DESIGN: Systematic Review.

METHODS: A systematic, computerized search of electronic databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, SportDiscus, and Web of Science) was performed. Inclusion criteria were: (1) a diagnosis of shoulder instability (2) the statistical association of at least one risk factor was reported, (3) study designs appropriate for risk factors, (4) written in English, and (5) used an acceptable reference standard for diagnosed shoulder instability. Titles and abstracts were independently screened by at least two reviewers. All reviewers examined the quality studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). At least two reviewers independently extracted information and data regarding author, year, study population, study design, criterion standard, and strength of association statistics with risk factors.

RESULTS: Male sex, participation in sport, hypermobility in males, and glenoid index demonstrated moderate to large risk associated with first time shoulder instability. Male sex, age \<30 years, and history of glenohumeral instability with concomitant injury demonstrated moderate to large risk associated with recurrent shoulder instability.

CONCLUSION: There may be an opportunity for patient education in particular populations as to their increased risk for suffering shoulder instability, particularly in young males who appear to be at increased risk for recurrent shoulder instability.


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