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Predictive values of relative fat mass and body mass index on cardiovascular health in community-dwelling older adults: Results from the Longevity Check-up (Lookup) 7.

Maturitas 2024 May 2
OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of relative fat mass compared to body mass index for hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and heightened cardiovascular risk in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults from the Longevity Check-up 7+ cohort.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Hyperlipidemia was defined as total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL or ongoing lipid-lowering treatment. Diabetes was defined either as self-reported diagnosis or fasting blood glucose >126 mg/dL or a random blood glucose >200 mg/dL. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or requiring daily antihypertensive medications. Heightened cardiovascular risk was operationalized as having at least two of these conditions.

RESULTS: Analyses were conducted in 1990 participants (mean age 73.2 ± 6.0 years; 54.1 % women). Higher proportions of men than women had hypertension and diabetes, while hyperlipidemia was more prevalent in women. Receiver operating curve analysis indicated relative fat mass was a better predictor of hypertension in women and diabetes in both sexes. Body mass index performed better in predicting hyperlipidemia in women. Relative fat mass thresholds of ≥27 % for men and ≥40 % for women were identified as optimal indicators of heightened cardiovascular risk and so were used to defined high adiposity. Moderate correlations were found between high adiposity or body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 and the presence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and heightened cardiovascular risk, while a strong correlation was found with diabetes. Logistic regression analysis highlighted significant associations between high adiposity and increased odds of hypertension, diabetes, and heightened cardiovascular risk.

CONCLUSIONS: Proposed cut-offs for relative fat mass were more reliable indices than the usual cut-offs for body mass index for identifying individuals at heightened cardiovascular risk. Our findings support the role of anthropometric measures in evaluating body composition and the associated metabolic and cardiovascular conditions in older adults.

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