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Cost-Effectiveness of 20-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Argentinean Adults.

INTRODUCTION: In Argentina, vaccination with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) followed by 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23; PCV13 → PPSV23) has been recommended for all adults aged ≥ 65 years and younger adults with chronic medical ("moderate-risk") or immunocompromising ("high-risk") conditions since 2017. With the approval of a 20-valent PCV (PCV20), we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of PCV20 versus current recommendations for moderate-/high-risk adults aged 18-64 years and all adults 65-99 years.

METHODS: A probabilistic cohort model was used to project lifetime outcomes and costs associated with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and all-cause non-bacteremic pneumonia (NBP), and the expected impact of vaccination. Clinical outcomes were projected annually based on Argentinean data. Economic costs were estimated based on cases and corresponding medical costs (adjusted to 2023 USD) and costs of vaccine and administration. Cost-effectiveness of PCV20 was evaluated versus the current strategy, PCV13 → PPSV23, and alternatively, versus sequentially administered 15-valent PCV and PPSV23 (PCV15 →  PPSV23), and presented as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained; a healthcare system perspective was used. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3%/year.

RESULTS: PCV20 in lieu of PCV13 → PPSV23 among moderate-/high-risk adults aged 18-64 years and all adults 65-99 years (N = 13.4M) prevented 3838 IPD, 4377 inpatient NBP, and 6003 outpatient NBP cases, and 1865 disease-related deaths; relative to PCV15 → PPSV23 the corresponding reductions were 2775, 3285, 4518, and 1348. PCV20 was projected to be the dominant strategy versus PCV13 → PPSV23 and PCV15 → PPSV23 as overall costs were lower by $87.6M and $80.8M, respectively. In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, PCV20 was dominant (i.e., more effective, less costly) in 100% of 1000 simulations.

CONCLUSIONS: Analyses suggest implementing a PCV20 vaccination program in moderate-/high-risk adults aged 18-64 years and all adults ≥ 65 years-in lieu of PCV13 → PPSV23-would yield substantial reductions in pneumococcal disease and would be cost saving to the Argentinean healthcare system.

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