Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
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Molecular Pathways Governing the Termination of Liver Regeneration.

The liver has the unique capacity to regenerate, and up to 70% of the liver can be removed without detrimental consequences to the organism. Liver regeneration is a complex process involving multiple signaling networks and organs. Liver regeneration proceeds through three phases: the initiation phase, the growth phase, and the termination phase. Termination of liver regeneration occurs when the liver reaches a liver-to-body weight that is required for homeostasis, the so-called "hepatostat." The initiation and growth phases have been the subject of many studies. The molecular pathways that govern the termination phase, however, remain to be fully elucidated. This review summarizes the pathways and molecules that signal the cessation of liver regrowth after partial hepatectomy and answers the question, "What factors drive the hepatostat?" SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Unraveling the pathways underlying the cessation of liver regeneration enables the identification of druggable targets that will allow us to gain pharmacological control over liver regeneration. For these purposes, it would be useful to understand why the regenerative capacity of the liver is hampered under certain pathological circumstances so as to artificially modulate the regenerative processes (e.g., by blocking the cessation pathways) to improve clinical outcomes and safeguard the patient's life.

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