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Race explains substantial variance in whole blood thiamine diphosphate concentrations.

Nutrition Research 2024 March 31
Deficiency for thiamine (vitamin B1 ), traditionally assessed via the activity of the thiamine-dependent enzyme erythrocyte transketolase, has been reported in individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and in people with HIV; concentrations of the metabolically active diphosphate form, however, have yet to be reported in HIV cohorts and results in AUD are equivocal. In this cross-sectional study, samples from 170 AUD, 130 HIV, and 100 healthy control individuals were analyzed to test the hypothesis that AUD and HIV groups relative to healthy controls would show low whole blood thiamine diphosphate (TDP) concentrations related to peripheral neuropathy. TDP concentrations were not different in the 3 study groups (P = .6141) but were lower in Black (n = 172) relative to White (n = 155) individuals (P < .0001) regardless of group. In a multiple regression, race relative to diagnoses explained more than 10 times the variance in whole blood TDP concentrations (F4,395 = 3.5, P = .0086; r2 = 15.1]. Performance on a measure of peripheral neuropathy (2-point discrimination) was worse in the HIV and AUD cohorts relative to the healthy control group (P < .0001) but was not associated with TDP concentrations. These findings suggest that Black individuals carry a heightened vulnerability for low whole blood TDP concentrations, but the clinical significance and mechanisms underlying these results remain to be determined.

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