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Evolution of natural killer cell-targeted therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

In hematologic oncology, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presents a significant challenge due to its complex genetic landscape and resistance to conventional therapies. Despite advances in treatment, including intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the prognosis for many patients with AML remains poor. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising approach to improve outcomes by augmenting existing treatments. Natural killer (NK) cells, a subset of innate lymphoid cells, have garnered attention for their potent cytotoxic capabilities against AML cells. In this review, we discuss the role of NK cells in AML immunosurveillance, their dysregulation in patients with AML, and various therapeutic strategies leveraging NK cells in AML treatment. We explore the challenges and prospects associated with NK cell therapy, including approaches to enhance NK cell function, overcome immune evasion mechanisms, and optimize treatment efficacy. Finally, we emphasize the importance of further research to validate and refine patient-first NK cell-based immunotherapies for AML.

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