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Endovascular Treatment of Pelvic Venous Congestion Syndrome in Nulliparous Patients-Preliminary Results of 10 Years of Experience.

PURPOSE: The aim of this article is to present our experience with minimally-invasive treatment for nulliparous patients with pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVCS) with special attention to anatomical considerations, procedural and clinical outcome.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, monocentric study, 21 patients with PVCS treated from January 2014 to June 2023 were included. The preprocedural imaging evaluation of PVCS was based on color Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced CT and/or MRI. In all cases insufficient ovarian veins and/or internal iliac branches were occluded with coils and sclerosant. Procedural and clinical outcomes were measured 30 and 90 days after the procedure.

RESULTS: Average duration of pelvic pain was 44.8 ± 54.2 months (from 6 to 200) with the mean VAS-recorded pain intensity of 8.5 ± 1.1 (range from 7 to 10 where 0 was "no pain" and 10 "worst pain possible"). Most common symptoms included dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and dysuria. Complete embolization was observed in in all cases. Targeted vessels included left ovarian vein (13/21, 62%), both ovarian veins (7/21, 33%) and left pudendal with left ovarian (1/21, 5%). Residual PVCS was noted in 1 patient. Mean VAS at 90-days after the procedure was 2.4 ± 1.4 (range from 0 to 6, p < 0.001). Nineteen patients (90%) were satisfied with the clinical outcome (13 "very satisfied", 6 "satisfied") and reported improvement in quality of life. Two patients (9.5%) reported to be "neutral" as the VAS reduction was less than 50%.

CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that endovascular coil embolization is safe and effective in treatment of nulliparous patients with PVCS that provides very high rate of clinical success and overall satisfaction.

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