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Monitoring lung recruitment.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores lung recruitment monitoring, covering techniques, challenges, and future perspectives.

RECENT FINDINGS: Various methodologies, including respiratory system mechanics evaluation, arterial bold gases (ABGs) analysis, lung imaging, and esophageal pressure (Pes) measurement are employed to assess lung recruitment. In support to ABGs analysis, the assessment of respiratory mechanics with hysteresis and recruitment-to-inflation ratio has the potential to evaluate lung recruitment and enhance mechanical ventilation setting. Lung imaging tools, such as computed tomography scanning, lung ultrasound, and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) confirm their utility in following lung recruitment with the advantage of radiation-free and repeatable application at the bedside for sonography and EIT. Pes enables the assessment of dorsal lung tendency to collapse through end-expiratory transpulmonary pressure. Despite their value, these methodologies may require an elevated expertise in their application and data interpretation. However, the information obtained by these methods may be conveyed to build machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms aimed at improving the clinical decision-making process.

SUMMARY: Monitoring lung recruitment is a crucial component of managing patients with severe lung conditions, within the framework of a personalized ventilatory strategy. Although challenges persist, emerging technologies offer promise for a personalized approach to care in the future.

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