Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review
Systematic Review
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Risk factors for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia after kidney transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP), an opportunistic infection, often leads to an increase in hospitalization time and mortality rates in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. However, the risk factors associated with PJP in KT recipients remain debatable. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to identify risk factors for PJP, which could potentially help to reduce PJP incidence and improve outcome of KT recipients.

METHODS: We systematically retrieved relevant studies in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2023. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) or mean differences (MDs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the impact of potential risk factors on the occurrence of PJP.

RESULTS: 27 studies including 42383 KT recipients were included. In this meta-analysis, age at transplantation (MD = 3.48; 95% CI = .56-6.41; p = .02), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (OR = 4.00; 95% CI = 2.53-6.32; p = .001), BK viremia (OR = 3.38; 95% CI = 1.70-6.71; p = .001), acute rejection (OR = 3.66; 95% CI = 2.44-5.49; p = .001), ABO-incompatibility (OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.57-4.01; p = .001), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (MD = -14.52; 95% CI = -25.37- (-3.67); p = .009), lymphocyte count (MD = -.54; 95% CI = -.92- (-.16); p = .006) and anti-PJP prophylaxis (OR = .53; 95% CI = .28-.98; p = .04) were significantly associated with PJP occurrence.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that transplantation age greater than 50 years old, CMV infection, BK viremia, acute rejection, ABO-incompatibility, decreased eGFR and lymphopenia were risk factors for PJP.

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