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The comprehensive incidence and risk factors of fracture in kidney transplant recipients: A meta-analysis.

Nephrology 2024 April 31
AIM: Kidney transplant recipients are at high risk of fracture due to many factors such as nutritional status, hyperparathyroidism, acidosis and steroid administration. The current meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively analyse the incidence and risk factors of fracture in kidney transplant recipients.

METHODS: A systematic search on Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane Library until November 2023 was performed. RStudio software was used to analyse data.

RESULTS: Twenty-eight eligible studies containing 310 530 kidney transplant recipients were included in the analysis. The pooled incidence of fracture was 10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7%-13%) generally. When divided by regions, it was further observed that the pooled incidence of fracture was 13% (95% CI: 9%-17%) in Europe, 11% (95% CI: 6%-16%) in North America, 7% (95% CI: 3%-11%) in Asia. Regarding the risk factors, pooled analysis revealed that age of recipient (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.17-1.91), female sex (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.53), pretransplantation diabetes (HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97), pretransplantation fracture history (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.86-2.78), dialysis duration (HR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.17) and deceased donor (HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.39) related to higher risk of fracture. The general quality of included studies was acceptable, and no publication bias existed except for the analysis between age of recipient and fracture incidence; further trim and fill method indicated age of recipient showed a correlation trend with the fracture incidence without the statistical significance.

CONCLUSION: The pooled incidence of fracture reaches 10% in kidney transplant recipients, which relates to age of recipient, female sex, pretransplantation diabetes or fracture history, dialysis duration and decease donor.

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