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Correlation Between Low Cytoplasmic Expression of XBP1 and the Likelihood of Surviving Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

In Vivo 2024
BACKGROUND/AIM: Our objectives in this study were to (i) evaluate the clinical significance of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) expression in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and (ii) assess the potential of XBP1 to be used as a prognostic biomarker.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The expression of XBP1 protein in 267 HCC tissue specimens was measured using immunohistochemistry in order to characterize the associations among XBP1 expression, clinicopathological factors and survival outcomes. Survival analysis using follow-up data was used to assess the prognostic value of XBP1 in cases of HCC. Immunohistochemistry revealed a significant decrease in cytoplasmic XBP1 protein expression in HCC tumor tissue.

RESULTS: Immunoreactivity results showed that low cytoplasmic XBP1 expression was significantly associated with vascular invasion, as well as poor 5-year overall survival and long-term disease-specific (DSS) and disease-free (DFS) survival rates. Kaplan-Meier survival curves further confirmed a significant association between low cytoplasmic XBP1 protein expression and poor DSS and DFS. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that XBP1 expression, tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, tumor stage, and the rate of recurrence were linked to DSS, while low cytoplasmic XBP1 expression remained an independent predictor of poor DSS. Our analysis also revealed that XBP1 expression, tumor differentiation, vascular invasion, and T classification were linked to DFS, while low cytoplasmic XBP1 expression remained an independent predictor of poor DFS.

CONCLUSION: Low cytoplasmic XBP1 protein expression may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HCC, which suggests that XBP1 could potentially be targeted to benefit therapeutic strategies for HCC.

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