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Does Serum Uric Acid to Creatinine Ratio Predict Mortality Risk in Patients With Heart Failure?

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have established a positive correlation between serum uric acid to creatinine (SUA/Cr) ratio and cardiovascular disease, but the relationship between SUA/Cr ratio and the prognosis of heart failure (HF) remains unknown. This study investigated the potential of SUA/Cr ratio as a prognostic predictor for patients with HF.

METHODS: This single-center prospective cohort study enrolled 2,122 patients with HF between March 2013 and June 2017. All patients were divided into 3 groups according to SUA/Cr ratio tertiles and were followed up with until December 31, 2022. The association between SUA/Cr ratio and the prognosis of HF was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards model.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) age and mean (SD) SUA/Cr ratio of the study cohort (66% male) were 59.3 (14.7) years and 4.71 (2.09), respectively. During a median follow-up period of 15 months (range, 11-26 months), 390 end-point events were observed. Prognosis analysis revealed that a high SUA/Cr ratio was associated with an increased mortality risk of HF (hazard ratio, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.26-2.09]; P < .001) compared with the SUA/Cr ratio in the lowest tertile. After adjusting for covariates, the hazard ratio for mortality risk of HF was 1.71 (95% CI, 1.23-2.37; P = .001). Subgroup analysis showed that mortality risk increased in direct proportion with the SUA/Cr ratio in female patients, patients with a history of hypertension and β-blocker use, and patients with UA levels below 428 μmol/L and creatinine levels less than 97 mg/dL. Stratification by age; by history of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and smoking; and by level of fasting plasma glucose, however, had no obvious effect on the association between SUA/Cr ratio and HF prognosis. Patients with higher SUA/Cr ratios had reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter.

CONCLUSION: A high SUA/Cr ratio was an independent risk factor for the mortality risk of HF.

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