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Cardiac hypertrophy that affects hyperthyroidism occurs independently of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive response to maintain cardiac function; however, persistent stress responses lead to contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Although inflammation is involved in these processes, the mechanisms that control cardiac inflammation and hypertrophy still need to be clarified. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex that mediates IL-1β production. The priming step of NLRP3 is essential for increasing the expression of its components and occurs following NF-κB activation. Hyperthyroidism triggers CH, which can progress to maladaptive CH and even heart failure. We have shown in a previous study that thyroid hormone (TH)-induced CH is linked to the upregulation of S100A8, leading to NF-κB activation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in TH-induced CH and its potential role in CH pathophysiology. Hyperthyroidism was induced in NLRP3 knockout (NLRP3-KO), Caspase-1-KO and Wild Type (WT) male mice of the C57Bl/6J strain, aged 8-12 weeks, by triiodothyronine (7 μg/100 g BW, i.p.) administered daily for 14 days. Morphological and cardiac functional analysis besides molecular assays showed, for the first time, that TH-induced CH is accompanied by reduced NLRP3 expression in the heart and that it occurs independently of the NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase 1-related pathways. However, NLRP3 is important for the maintenance of basal cardiac function since NLRP3-KO mice had impaired diastolic function and reduced heart rate, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening compared with WT mice.

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