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Spironolactone for Preventing Contrast-Induced Nephropathy After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Chronic Kidney Disease.

Angiology 2024 April 29
Patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), which can subsequently worsen the overall prognosis. To evaluate the efficacy of spironolactone for CIN prevention, 410 patients with AMI and CKD receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 240 and 170 patients were enrolled in the standard treatment and spironolactone groups (spironolactone was administered 2 days before and 3 days after PCI), respectively. The primary endpoint of CIN was defined as a 0.5 mg/dL or >25% increase from the baseline serum creatinine level within 48-72 h post-PCI. CIN incidence was significantly lower in the spironolactone group than in the standard treatment group (11.2 vs 26.7%, P < .001). Further, cardiac re-hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.515; 95% CI: 0.382-0.694; P < .001) and cardiac death (HR: 0.612; 95% CI: 0.429-0.872; P = .007) risks were significantly lower in patients who received long-term spironolactone with a median treatment duration of 42 months after discharge. Spironolactone might lower the risk of CIN, and long-term use of spironolactone reduces the risk of cardiac re-hospitalization and cardiac death in patients with AMI and CKD undergoing PCI.

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