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Bioactive components in Psidium guajava extracts elicit biotoxic attributes and distinct antioxidant enzyme modulation in the larvae of vectors of lymphatic filariasis and dengue.

Control of mosquito vectors, which have caused a global disease burden, has employed various methods. However, the challenges posed by current physical and chemical methods have raised concerns about vector control programs, leading to the search for alternative methods that are less toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective. This study investigated the larvicidal potential of aqueous, methanol, and ethylacetate extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava) against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Functional group and phytochemical characterization were performed using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and GC-MS analysis to identify the bioactive compounds in the extracts. Larval bioassays were conducted using WHO standard procedures at concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 125, and 250 mg/L, and mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h. Additionally, antioxidant enzyme profiles in the larvae were studied. All of the solvent extracts showed larvicidal activity, with the methanol extract exhibiting the highest mortality against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae, followed by aqueous and ethylacetate extracts. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of OH, C-H of methyl and methylene, C=O and C=C. The GC-MS analysis indicated that the methanol, aqueous, and ethylacetate extracts all had 27, 34, and 43 phytoactive compounds that were effective at causing larvicidal effects, respectively. Different concentrations of each extract significantly modulated the levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione in larvae. This study's findings indicate the potential for developing environmentally friendly vector control products using the bioactive components of extracts from P. guajava leaves.

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