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Lexicographic optimization-based planning for stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases.

AIM: To validate a fully-automated lexicographic optimization-planning system (mCycle, Elekta) for single-(SL) and multiple-(ML, up to 4 metastases) lesions in intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS, 21 Gy, single fraction).

METHODS: A pre-determined priority list, Wish-List (WL), represents a dialogue between planner and clinician, establishing strict constraints and pursuing objectives. In order to satisfy the clinical protocol without manual intervention, four patients were required to tweak and fine-tune each WL (SLp, MLp) for coplanar arcs. Thirty-five testing plans (20 SLp, 15 MLp) were automatically re-planned (mCP). Automatic and manual plans were compared including dose constraints, conformality, modulation complexity score (MCS), delivery time, and local gamma analysis (2 %/2mm). To ensure plan clinical acceptability, two radiation oncologists conducted an independent blind plan choice.

RESULTS: Each WL-tuning took 3 days. Estimated median manual plans and mCP calculation time were 8 and 3 h, respectively. Significant increases in SLp and MLp target coverage and conformity were registered. mCP showed a not significant and clinically acceptable higher median brain V12Gy . SLp registered a -5.8 % MU decrease with comparable median delivery time (MP 2.0 min, mCP 1.9 min) while MLp showed a + 9.8 % MU increase and longer delivery time (MP 3.5 min, mCP 4.4 min). mCP MCS resulted significantly higher without affecting gamma passing rates. At blind choice, mCP were preferred in the majority of cases.

CONCLUSIONS: Lexicographic optimization produced acceptable SRS plans with coplanar arcs significantly reducing the overall planning time in cases with up to 4 brain metastases. These planning improvements suggest further investigations by setting high-quality non-coplanar arc plans as a reference.

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