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Caffeine and Sleep in Preventing Post-spinal Headache: Which One is More Effective?

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effects of caffeine consumption and sleep on post-spinal headache after spinal anesthesia.

BACKGROUND: Post-spinal headache is among the most well-known and common complications of spinal anesthesia. Although caffeine consumption is recommended to prevent headache after spinal anesthesia, caffeine does not prevent headache and causes sleep-related problems. No study in the literature found a correlation between sleep and caffeine consumption after spinal anesthesia and post-spinal headache.

METHODS: The research is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. The study sample comprised 425 patients who underwent elective surgery in a research hospital. The research data were collected by face-to-face interviews between April 2021 and December 2023. The "Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics Form," "Richard-Campbell Sleep Scale," "Insomnia Severity Index," and "Visual Analog Scale" were used in data collection. Factors affecting post-spinal headache were determined using binary logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: According to the binary logistic regression, the insomnia severity score (OR = 1.234; p < .001), sleep quality score (OR = .992; p < .01), postoperative sleep duration (OR = .619; p < .05), and not consuming coffee (OR = .035; p < .001) are statistically significant predictors of post-spinal headache and explain 57.7% of the variance. A one-unit increase in patients' insomnia severity increased the probability of experiencing a post-spinal headache by 23.4%. With a one-unit increase in sleep quality, there was an 8% decrease in the probability of experiencing spinal headache, and a 3.81% decrease in the probability of experiencing post-spinal headache with an increase in sleep duration after surgery. The probability of experiencing post-spinal headache was 0.35 times higher in individuals who did not consume caffeine after surgery than in those who consumed it.

CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that insomnia severity and sleep quality were more effective than caffeine consumption in preventing post-spinal headache. Insomnia and decreased sleep quality may cause a significant burden in developing post-spinal headache in patients and may cause post-spinal headache to be observed more frequently. Therefore, the use of caffeine in preventing or reducing post-spinal headache may adversely affect the duration and quality of sleep and increase the severity of insomnia.

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