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Mechanistic complement of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: the role of aquaporins.

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a genetic kidney disease caused by mutations in the genes PKD1 or PKD2. Its course is characterized by the formation of progressively enlarged cysts in the renal tubules bilaterally. The basic genetic explanation for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is the double-hit theory, and many of its mechanistic issues can be explained by the cilia doctrine. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underpinning this condition's occurrence are still not completely understood. Experimental evidence suggests that aquaporins, a class of transmembrane channel proteins, including aquaporin-1, aquaporin-2, aquaporin-3, and aquaporin-11, are involved in the mechanism of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Aquaporins are either a potential new target for the treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, and further study into the physiopathological role of aquaporins in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease will assist to clarify the disease's pathophysiology and increase the pool of potential treatment options. We primarily cover pertinent findings on aquaporins in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in this review.

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