Journal Article
Review
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Biomarkers in Detection of Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Pathogens 2024 April 18
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects 58 million people worldwide. In the United States, the incidence rate of acute hepatitis C has doubled since 2014; during 2021, this increased to 5% from 2020. Acute hepatitis C is defined by any symptom of acute viral hepatitis plus either jaundice or elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity with the detection of HCV RNA, the anti-HCV antibody, or hepatitis C virus antigen(s). However, most patients with acute infection are asymptomatic. In addition, ALT activity and HCV RNA levels can fluctuate, and a delayed detection of the anti-HCV antibody can occur among some immunocompromised persons with HCV infection. The detection of specific biomarkers can be of great value in the early detection of HCV infection at an asymptomatic stage. The high rate of HCV replication (which is approximately 1010 to 1012 virions per day) and the lack of proofreading by the viral RNA polymerase leads to enormous genetic diversity, creating a major challenge for the host immune response. This broad genetic diversity contributes to the likelihood of developing chronic infection, thus leading to the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies for HCV infection are highly effective with a cure rate of up to 99%. At the same time, many patients with HCV infection are unaware of their infection status because of the mostly asymptomatic nature of hepatitis C, so they remain undiagnosed until the liver damage has advanced. Molecular mechanisms induced by HCV have been intensely investigated to find biomarkers for diagnosing the acute and chronic phases of the infection. However, there are no clinically verified biomarkers for patients with hepatitis C. In this review, we discuss the biomarkers that can differentiate acute from chronic hepatitis C, and we summarize the current state of the literature on the useful biomarkers that are detectable during acute and chronic HCV infection, liver fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app