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The prevalence of pneumothorax in human immunodeficiency virus patients. A single center study .

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence, risk factors, and associated complications of pneumothorax that are present in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at our institution and to provide an updated local study addressing the association between pneumothorax and HIV.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 161 patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of HIV from June 2017 to May 2022. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the presence of pneumothorax during their stay. Multiple variables were studied, including age, gender, tuberculosis infection, pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP)infection, bacterial pneumonia, and pneumothorax type and treatment course.

RESULTS: There were 11 patients diagnosed with pneumothorax (prevalence rate: 6.8%). Bacterial lung infection was found in 9 (81.8%) of these patients, while fungal infection was found in 6 (54.5%) ( p <0.001, 0.010). The MTB was found in 3 (27.3%) patients ( p =0.728), while none were infected with PJP. Intercostal tube insertion was attempted in 9 (81.8%) patients, the mean duration of tube stay was 39.3±30.7 days, and the mortality rate was 72.7% ( p =0.007).

CONCLUSION: Pneumothorax in patients with HIV is a manifestation of the progression of the disease and its poor outcome. It has a complicated treatment course and a high mortality rate.

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