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Safety and efficacy of multiple-dose versus single-dose MIBG therapy in patients with refractory pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: a single-center retrospective analysis.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of adverse events (AEs) following single and multiple administrations of I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) therapy for inoperable pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs).

METHODS: A single-center retrospective study was conducted on patients with inoperable PPGLs who underwent I-131 MIBG therapy between January 2000 and December 2020. A total of 28 patients with available electronic medical records were included. The treatment consisted of a single intravenous administration of 150 mCi (5.55 GBq) of I-131 MIBG. We evaluated the first MIBG treatment and repeated MIBG treatments performed within 200 days of the previous treatment. AEs for each treatment were evaluated using CTCAE version 4.0, and the statistical analysis was conducted at a significance level of p < 0.05. Objective response based on RECIST 1.1 criteria and biochemical response based on urinary catecholamines were assessed.

RESULTS: The study included a total of 63 administrations, consisting of 28 single administrations (SAs), including the first administration for all 28 cases, and 35 multiple administrations (MAs), which included the second or later administrations. Hematological AEs were evaluable for 23 SAs and 29 MAs. Grade 3 or higher leukopenia occurred in 9.8% of all administrations, and Grade 3 or higher lymphopenia in 23.5%; both were manageable through observation. There were no significant differences in clinical AE Grades 1-2 (p = 0.32), hematological AE Grades 1-2 (p = 0.22), or hematological AE Grades 3-4 (p = 0.12) between MAs and SAs. Statistical analysis for each type of AE revealed significant increases in leukopenia (p < 0.01) and lymphopenia (p = 0.04). No significant difference in anemia, thrombocytopenia, or neutropenia was observed between MAs and SAs. There was no significant increase in the incidence rate of Grade 3 or higher hematological AEs for any of the parameters. The objective response rate was 0% for SAs and 36% for MAs. Biochemical response rates were 18% for SAs and 67% for MAs.

CONCLUSION: In I-131 MIBG therapy for PPGLs, multiple administrations significantly increased only Grade 1 or 2 lymphopenia and leukopenia compared to single administration.

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