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Isolation and Identification of Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica from Pneumonic Small Ruminants and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia.

BACKGROUND: Pasteurella species are frequently encountered as serious diseases in small ruminants. It is the main cause of respiratory pasteurellosis in sheep and goats of all age groups.

METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2022 to April 2023 in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia, to isolate and identify Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica and estimate their prevalence, associated risk factors, and antimicrobial sensitivity of isolates in small ruminants using a purposive sampling method. A total of 384 samples (156 nasal swabs from clinic cases and 228 lung swabs from abattoir cases) were collected. STATA 14 software was used to analyze the data. In addition, multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess an association of risk factors.

RESULTS: Out of the 384 samples examined, 164 were positive for pasteurellosis, resulting in a 42.70% prevalence. Similarly, 63 (38.4%) of the 164 positive results were from nasal swabs, while 101 (61.6%) came from lung samples. M. haemolytica accounted for 126 (76.82%) of the isolates, while P. multocida accounted for 38 (23.17%). Of the 63 nasal swab isolates, 33 (37%) were from goats and 30 (42.8%) were from sheep. And 17 (10.89%) and 46 (29.58%), respectively, were P. multocida and M. haemolytica . Of the 46 (40%) of the 101 (44.3%) isolates of the pneumonic lung, samples were from goats, while 55 (48.47%) were from sheep. In this study, the risk factors (species, age, and body condition score) were found to be significant ( p < 0.05). Pasteurella isolates evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility were highly resistant to oxacillin (90.90%), followed by gentamycin (72.72%), and penicillin (63.63%). However, the isolates were highly sensitive to chloramphenicol (90.90%), followed by tetracycline (63.63%), and ampicillin (54.54%).

CONCLUSION: This study showed that M. haemolytica and P. multocida are the common causes of mannheimiosis and pasteurellosis in small ruminants, respectively, and isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics in the study area. Thus, an integrated vaccination strategy, antimicrobial resistance monitoring, and avoidance of stress-inducing factors are recommended.

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