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The Clinical Outcome of Carotid Blowout Syndrome Showing Non-bleeding Angiography.

OBJECTIVE: Patient with carotid blowout syndrome (CBS) may demonstrated non-bleeding digital subtraction angiography (DSA) without identifying pseudoaneurysm or contrast extravasation. Our objective is to evaluate the clinical outcomes for this specific subset of patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted on 172 CBS patients who received DSA for evaluation of transarterial embolization (TAE) between 2005 and 2022, of whom 19 patients had non-bleeding DSA and did not undergo TAE.

RESULTS: The age (55.2 ± 7.3 vs. 54.8 ± 11.1), male sex (17/19 vs. 135/153), tumor size (5.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.2 ± 2.2), cancer locations were similar (P > 0.05) between both groups; except for there were more pseudoaneurysm/active bleeding (85.6% vs. 0%) and less vascular irregularity (14.4% vs. 94.7%) in the TAE group (P < 0.001). In the multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, and tumor size, non-bleeding DSA group was independently associated with recurrent bleeding compared to TAE group (adjusted hazard ratio = 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.9-6.4, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the presence of vascular irregularity was associated with segmental recurrent bleeding (adjusted HR = 8.0, 95% CI 2.7-23.3, P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Patient showing non-bleeding DSA thus not having TAE had higher risk of recurrent bleeding, compared to patient who received TAE. Level of Evidence Level 4, Case Series.

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