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Are there new biomarkers of the gastroduodenal microbiota useful in the diagnosis of coeliac disease in children? A pilot study.

Beneficial Microbes 2024 April 24
The changing of microbiome could precede the development of coeliac disease (CeD). We compared the bacterial profile of microbiota of tissues collected simultaneously from the stomach and duodenum in newly diagnosed patients with CeD. Biopsies were collected from 60 children and adolescents aged 2-18 years: (1) 40 patients with CeD; (2) 20 children as control group. The evaluation of the bacterial microbiota was carried out by sequencing the V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA subunit, using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The composition of bacterial microbiota was correlated with clinical and blood parameters. The beta diversity analysis revealed a significant dissimilarity in the gastric samples between the CeD and control group (Bray-Curtis index, P = 0.008, and weighted UniFrac distance, P = 0.024). At L2 (phylum level), Campylobacterota was only present in the stomach of the CeD group. A comparison of the abundance of bacteria between the stomach and duodenum showed significant differences in 10 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) in the control and 9 OTUs in the CeD group at L6 (genus) and in 8 OTUs and in 6 OTUs, respectively, at L7 (species). A significant correlation was observed between the genus Novosphingobium in stomach of CeD group and possession of the DQ2.5 and DQ 8 allele, and in the duodenum - between the DQ 8 allele and the species Blautia wexlerae. Significant differences in selected, little-known genera of bacteria suggest their potential role as new biomarkers in the development of CeD. To fully understand the mechanism of CeD development in genetically predisposed individuals, it is necessary to take into account not only the abundance of a given genus or species of bacteria, but also the anatomical location of its occurrence.

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