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Upregulation of Anti-Desmocollin 3 Antibodies in Pemphigus Diseases: A Case-control Study.

BACKGROUND: Pemphigus diseases are a subgroup of autoimmune bullous diseases characterized by autoantibodies against desmogleins and occasionally desmocollins. Desmocollin 3 is the main desmocollin isoform that contributes to cell adhesion in the epidermis.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence and level of anti-desmocollin 3 antibodies in pemphigus diseases, and to investigate whether their presence is associated with a specific type, presentation, or clinical pattern.

METHODS: Forty patients with pemphigus diseases and forty healthy controls were enrolled. Medical history, clinical examination, and pemphigus disease area index (PDAI) scoring were recorded for all patients. Serum samples were collected from both groups for assessment of anti-desmocollin 3 antibody reactivity by ELISA.

RESULTS: The presence of anti-desmocollin 3 antibodies was significant among patients with pemphigus compared with controls (P=0.003). The level of anti-desmocollin 3 antibodies was also significantly higher in patients with pemphigus compared with controls (P=0.01). There was no significant relationship between the presence of anti-desmocollin 3 antibodies and any of the clinical presentations of pemphigus (type, severity, duration, activity, presence of annular pattern, or site of affection - mucosal, cutaneous, on the scalp, palmoplantar, or flexural).

CONCLUSION: Anti-desmocollin 3 antibodies are upregulated in pemphigus diseases and can contribute to the pathogenesis of pemphigus. No specific clinical type, presentation, or pattern was found to be associated with the presence of anti-desmocollin 3 antibodies.

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