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Increase of prostate-specific antigen doubling time predicts survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients undergoing radium therapy.

OBJECTIVE: Radium-223 (Ra-223) is an important treatment modality for bone-dominant metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, there is currently a lack of effective markers to monitor treatment response during treatment. We aim to investigate the response in prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) as a potential marker for assessing Ra-223 treatment in mCRPC patients.

METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from mCRPC patients who underwent radium treatment at our institution between August 2020 and June 2023. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements prior to treatment and during treatment were collected. Baseline PSADT was calculated from PSA measurements prior to Ra-223 treatment; interim PSADT was calculated from PSA measurements before Ra-223 treatment and prior to the fourth course injection. Overall survival was calculated from the start of treatment to the date of death. Univariable and multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to examine the association of factors with overall survival.

RESULTS: We included 35 patients from our institution, with a median overall survival of 13.3 months. Eighteen (51.4%) completed all six courses of treatment. PSA dynamic response (interim PSADT > baseline PSADT or decreased PSA) was observed in 20 patients. Overall survival was associated with a PSA dynamic response (HR = 0.318, 95% CI 0.133-0.762, p = 0.010) when compared to patients without response.

CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic changes in PSADT were associated with survival in mCRPC patients receiving radium therapy. Comparing interim and baseline PSADT could serve as a valuable marker for determining treatment benefits.

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