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Therapeutic plasma exchange as an intervention for gemtuzumab ozogamicin impaired hemoglobin scavenging: A case and systematic review.

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) is a CD33 monoclonal antibody-drug conjugate currently in use to treat myeloid malignancies. A unique adverse effect of this medication is destruction of CD33 positive macrophages resulting in reduced clearance of free hemoglobin leading to grossly red plasma. This build-up of free hemoglobin can potentially lead to end organ damage and prevent performance of clinically necessary laboratory evaluation. We present a case of a pediatric patient who developed this adverse effect and was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE). We also present results from a systematic review of the medical literature and share data from a query of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting system for GO-related hemoglobin scavenging impairment. Among reported cases, patients undergoing TPE and those receiving steroids had improved outcomes. Practitioners should be aware of this rare drug side-effect and the potential utility of TPE for these patients.

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