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Impact of autologous platelet concentrates on the osseointegration of dental implants.

Periodontology 2000 2024 April 23
Osseointegration is defined as the direct deposition of bone onto biomaterial devices, most commonly composed from titanium, for the purpose of anchoring dental prostheses. The use of autologous platelet concentrates (APC) has the potential to enhance this process by modifying the interface between the host and the surface of the titanium implant. The rationale is to modify the implant surface and implant-bone interface via "biomimicry," a process whereby the deposition of the host's own proteins and extracellular matrix enhances the biocompatibility of the implant and hence accelerates the osteogenic healing process. This review of the available evidence reporting on the effect of APC on osseointegration explores in vitro laboratory studies of the interaction of APC with different implant surfaces, as well as the in vivo and clinical effects of APC on osseointegration in animal and human studies. The inherent variability associated with using autologous products, namely the unique composition of each individual's blood plasma, as well as the great variety in APC protocols, combination of biomaterials, and clinical/therapeutic application, makes it is difficult to make any firm conclusions about the in vivo and clinical effects of APC on osseointegration. The available evidence suggests that the clinical benefits of adding PRP and the liquid form of L-PRF (liquid fibrinogen) to any implant surface appear to be limited. The application of L-PRF membranes in the osteotomy site, however, may produce positive clinical effects at the early stage of healing (up to 6 weeks), by promoting early implant stability and reducing marginal bone loss, although no positive longer term effects were observed. Careful interpretation and cautious conclusions should be drawn from these findings as there were various limitations in methodology. Future studies should focus on better understanding of the influence of APCs on the biomaterial surface and designing controlled preclinical and clinical studies using standardized APC preparation and application protocols.

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