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Anti-Parkinson potential of hesperetin nanoparticles: in vivo and in silico investigations.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by the gradual demise of dopaminergic neurons. In recent years, there has been significant interest in herbal treatments. In this study, hesperetin nanoparticles (HTN) were developed and compared their anti-PD potential with hesperetin (HT) on rotenone induced PD rats. Molecular docking was also performed to evaluate the binding affinity of hesperetin on pathological protein, i.e. D2 dopamine receptors (DR2), using Auto Dock Vina tools. The results showed a higher binding relationship of HTN on dopamine receptors (-7.2 kcal/mol) compared to L-dopa (-6.4 kcal/mol), supporting their potential as drug candidates for PD therapy. HTN was effectively synthesised using the fabrication technique and characterised by zeta potential and SEM analysis. HTN had favourable characteristics, including a size of 249.8 ± 14.9 nm and a Z-potential of -32.9 mV. After being administered orally, HTN demonstrated a notable anti-Parkinsonian effects, indicated by the significant improvement in motor function as assessed by the rota rod test ( p  < .001***), pole test ( p  < .001***), stair test ( p  < .01**), wood walk test ( p  < .01**) and an increase in substantia nigra (SN) antioxidant levels, CAT ( p  < .001***), SOD ( p  < .001***), GSH ( p  < .01**). Additionally, HTN led to increased dopamine levels ( p  < .01**) and a decrease in the oxidant system, MDA levels ( p  < .01**). Furthermore, histopathological examination revealed decreased SN neuronal necrosis in diseased animals treated with HTN compared to those treated with HT in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, HTN can be regarded as a viable platform for efficient therapy of PD.

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