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Racial and ethnic disparities in prostate cancer screening following the 2018 US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement.

OBJECTIVE: In 2018, the United States Preventive Services Task Force promoted shared decision making between healthcare provider and patient for men aged 55 to 69. This study aimed to analyze rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing across racial and ethnic groups following this new recommendation.

METHODS: A secondary analysis was conducted of the 2020-2021 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database to assess men aged 55 or older without a history of prostate cancer. We defined four race-ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs), Hispanics, and Other. The primary outcome was the most recent PSA test (MRT), defined as the respondent's most recent PSA test occurring pre-2018 or post-2018 guidelines. Logistic regression adjusted for covariates including age, socioeconomic status factors, marital status, smoking history, and healthcare access factors.

RESULTS: In the age 55 to 69 study sample, NHW men had the greatest proportion of MRT post-2018 guidelines (n = 15,864, 72.5%). NHB men had the lowest percentage of MRT post-2018 guidelines (n = 965, 66.6%). With NHW as referent, the crude odds of the MRT post-2018 guidelines was 0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-0.90) for NHB. The maximally adjusted odds ratio was 0.78 (0.59-1.02).

CONCLUSIONS: We found that NHB aged 55 to 69 reported decreased rates of PSA testing after 2018 when compared to NHW. This was demonstrated on crude analysis but not after adjustment. Such findings suggest the influence of social determinants of health on preventative screening for at-risk populations.

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