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Integrating technology into a successful apomorphine delivery program in Thailand: a 10-year journey of achievements with a five-motto concept.

INTRODUCTION: Apomorphine, a potent dopamine agonist, is a therapeutic option for patients with Parkinson's disease and motor fluctuations. However, the adoption of and adherence to this therapy have been limited by the need for complex delivery devices and specialized care as well as resource consumption, posing challenges for new physicians. Thailand is a unique example of a developing nation that has successfully implemented and continued the use of this therapy by employing cooperative technology that has dramatically enhanced apomorphine delivery services.

METHODS: Establishing apomorphine delivery services requires significant resources and step-by-step solutions. We began our services by implementing various strategies in three chronological stages: the initial stage (2013-2015), intermediate stage (2016-2019), and current stage (2020-present), each presenting unique challenges. Together, we also implemented a proposed set of five mottos to strengthen our apomorphine delivery service. Using additive technology, we developed a patient registry platform that combined electronic data acquisition, video and remote monitoring using wearable sensors, and in-house mobile applications to support our service.

RESULTS: At the initial stage, we assembled a team to enhance the efficacy and confirm the safety of apomorphine treatment in our hospital. At the intermediate stage, we expanded our apomorphine delivery services beyond just the patients at our hospital. We supported other hospitals in Thailand in setting up their own apomorphine services by educating both physicians and nurses regarding apomorphine therapy. With this educational undertaking, increased apomorphine-related knowledge among medical professionals, and a greater number of hospitals providing apomorphine services, an increasing number of patients were administered apomorphine in subsequent years. Currently, we are providing effective apomorphine delivery to improve patient outcomes and are seamlessly integrating technology into clinical practice. Incorporating integrative technologies in our apomorphine delivery program yielded positive results in data collection and support throughout patient care, in tracking patients' statuses, in the long-term use of this treatment, and in increasing medication adherence rates.

CONCLUSION: This perspective paper describes how technology can help provide supportive healthcare services in resource-constrained environments, such as in Thailand, offering a step-by-step approach to overcoming several limitations. The valuable insights from our 10-year journey in successfully integrating technology into apomorphine delivery services can benefit new physicians seeking to replicate our success.

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