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The role of apparent diffusion coefficient in the grading of adult isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant astrocytomas: relationship with the Ki-67 proliferation index.

Acta Radiologica 2024 April 23
BACKGROUND: The grading of adult isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant astrocytomas is a crucial prognostic factor.

PURPOSE: To investigate the value of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the grading of adult IDH-mutant astrocytomas, and to analyze the correlation between ADC and the Ki-67 proliferation index.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical and MRI data of 82 patients with adult IDH-mutant astrocytoma who underwent surgical resection and molecular genetic testing with IDH and 1p/19q were retrospectively analyzed. The conventional MRI features, ADCmin , ADCmean , and nADC of the tumors were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis single factor ANOVA and chi-square tests. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to evaluate conventional MRI and ADC accuracy in differentiating tumor grades. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the correlation between ADC and the Ki-67 proliferation index.

RESULTS: The difference in enhancement, ADCmin , ADCmean , and nADC among WHO grade 2, 3, and 4 tumors was statistically significant (all P  <0.05). ADCmin showed the preferable diagnostic accuracy for grading WHO grade 2 and 3 tumors (AUC=0.724, sensitivity=63.4%, specificity=80%, positive predictive value (PPV)=62.0%; negative predictive value (NPV)=82.5%), and distinguishing grade 3 from grade 4 tumors (AUC=0.764, sensitivity=70%, specificity=76.2%, PPV=75.0%, NPV=71.4%). Enhancement + ADC model showed an optimal predictive accuracy (grade 2 vs. 3: AUC = 0.759; grade 3 vs. 4: AUC = 0.799). The Ki-67 proliferation index was negatively correlated with ADCmin , ADCmean , and nADC (all P  <0.05), and positively correlated with tumor grade.

CONCLUSION: Conventional MRI features and ADC are valuable to predict pathological grading of adult IDH-mutant astrocytomas.

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