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Evaluating the optimal management strategy for intraoperative iatrogenic injury to the medial collateral ligament during primary total knee arthroplasty: A systematic review.

Knee 2024 April 20
INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative iatrogenic MCL injuries during primary TKA are rare complications that lack a gold standard management protocol. This review aims to provide insight into various treatment modalities and evidence-based guidance for improved patient outcomes.

METHODS: A comprehensive search across five databases identified relevant randomized control trials and retrospective cohort studies with reported outcomes. A total of 17 studies were included, and variables such as patient demographics, injury type, management, and Knee Society Scores (KSS) were assessed. The quality of included studies was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool.

RESULTS: Mean age of included patients ranged from 60.0 to 71.4 years. The mean Body Mass Index ranged from 26.75 to 34.40 kg/m2 . Among the included knees, 298 were categorized as MCL avulsion, and 167 as midsubstance/transection injuries. Primary repair with sutures or bone staples emerged as the most common management. Intraoperative MCL injury was correlated with reduced preoperative range of motion (ROM) and postoperative KSS clinical, functional, and pain scores compared to control groups. Postoperative ROM was comparable between MCL injury and control groups, ranging from 100.0° to 130.0° and 107.0° to 130.0°, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Current evidence supports primary repair as the preferred management for this complication. Factors such as extent of the tear, type of injury, and the surgeon's experience also help to guide treatment. While treatment modalities like allograft or autograft reconstruction show promise, further research with larger sample sizes is needed to enhance future outcomes.

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