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Targeting Recycling Endosomes to Potentiate mRNA Lipid Nanoparticles.

Nano Letters 2024 April 20
mRNA lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) have emerged as powerful modalities for gene therapies to control cancer and infectious and immune diseases. Despite the escalating interest in mRNA-LNPs over the past few decades, endosomal entrapment of delivered mRNAs vastly impedes therapeutic developments. In addition, the molecular mechanism of LNP-mediated mRNA delivery is poorly understood to guide further improvement through rational design. To tackle these challenges, we characterized LNP-mediated mRNA delivery using a library of small molecules targeting endosomal trafficking. We found that the expression of delivered mRNAs is greatly enhanced via inhibition of endocytic recycling in cells and in live mice. One of the most potent small molecules, endosidine 5 (ES5), interferes with recycling endosomes through Annexin A6, thereby promoting the release and expression of mRNA into the cytoplasm. Together, these findings suggest that targeting endosomal trafficking with small molecules is a viable strategy to potentiate the efficacy of mRNA-LNPs.

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