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Racial and Ethnic Variation in Receipt and Intensity of Active Surveillance for Older Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer.

INTRODUCTION: The use of active surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer is increasing, and racial disparities have been identified in its implementation. We investigated differences by race and ethnicity in the utilization and intensity of AS by race and ethnicity among older men with low- and favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer, with particular focus on the integration of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) into AS protocols.

METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results and Medicare fee-for-service linked database, we identified a cohort of men diagnosed between 2010 and 2017 with low- or favorable intermediate-risk prostate cancer. The odds of receiving AS were compared by patient race and ethnicity using multivariable logistic regression models, while the rates of usage of PSA tests, biopsy, and mpMRI within 2 years of diagnosis among men on AS were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models.

RESULTS: Our cohort included 33,542 men. The proportion of men with low-risk disease who underwent AS increased from 29.5% in 2010 to 51.7% in 2017, while the proportion among men with favorable intermediate disease grew from 11.4% to 17.2%. Hispanic (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68, 95% CI 0.58-0.79) and non-Hispanic Black men (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.89) were less likely to receive AS than non-Hispanic White men for low-risk disease, while non-Hispanic Black men were more likely to receive AS for favorable intermediate disease (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.39). Non-Hispanic Black men receiving AS underwent prostate MRI at a lower rate compared to non-Hispanic White men, regardless of whether they had low-risk (incidence rate ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97) or favorable intermediate-risk (incidence rate ratio = 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.83) disease, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The overall adoption of AS for low-risk prostate cancer increased among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries. However, a significant disparity exists for non-Hispanic Black men, as they exhibit lower rates of AS utilization. Moreover, non-Hispanic Black men are less likely to have access to novel technologies, such as mpMRI, as part of their AS protocols.

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