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ALDH2 as an immunological and prognostic biomarker: Insights from pan-cancer analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2024 April 20
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a critical role in safeguarding cells against acetaldehyde toxicity and is closely linked to human metabolism. Nevertheless, the involvement of ALDH2 in cancer remains enigmatic. This investigation seeks to comprehensively assess ALDH2's significance in pan-cancer. We conducted an all-encompassing analysis of pan-cancer utilizing multiple databases, including TCGA, linkedomicshs, UALCAN, and Kaplan-Meier plotter. We employed diverse algorithms such as EPIC, MCPCOUNTER, TIDTIMER, xCell, MCP-counter, CIBERSORT, quanTIseq, and EPIC to examine the connection between ALDH2 expression and immune cell infiltration. Single-cell sequencing analysis furnished insights into ALDH2's functional status in pan-cancer. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to validate ALDH2 expression in cancer tissues. In a comprehensive assessment, we observed that tumor tissues demonstrated diminished ALDH2 expression levels compared to normal tissues across 16 different cancer types. ALDH2 expression exhibited a significant positive correlation with the infiltration of immune cells, including CD4 + T cells, CD8 + T cells, neutrophils, B cells, and macrophages, in various tumor types. Moreover, this study explored the association between ALDH2 and patient survival, examined the methylation patterns of ALDH2 in normal and primary tumor tissues, and delved into genetic variations and mutations of ALDH2 in tumors. The findings suggest that ALDH2 could serve as a valuable prognostic biomarker in pan-cancer, closely linked to the tumor's immune microenvironment.

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