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A retrospective study of combination therapy with glucocorticoids and pirfenidone for PD-1 inhibitor-related immune pneumonitis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2024 April 20
Immune checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (ICIP) is thought to be a self-limiting disease; however, an effective treatment option does not currently exist. This study aimed to determine the clinical efficacy of combination therapy with glucocorticoids and pirfenidone for ICIP related to programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 45 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who developed ICIP following PD-1 inhibitor and albumin-bound paclitaxel or carboplatin treatment at our hospital. The PD-1 inhibitor was discontinued, and glucocorticoids were used alone or in combination with pirfenidone to treat ICIP. The relevant clinical data of these patients were collected and analyzed. Compared with the glucocorticoid alone group, the glucocorticoid-pirfenidone group showed significant improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity [%], peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and 6-minute walk distance (P < .05). There were benefits with respect to the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire score and the recurrence rate of ICIP, but there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (P > .05). Adding pirfenidone to glucocorticoid treatment was shown to be safe and may be more beneficial than glucocorticoids alone for improving pulmonary interstitial lesions, reversing ICIP, and preventing its recurrence.

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