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The role of vitamin D against COVID-19 infection, progression and severity.

Human Antibodies 2024 April 11
BACKGROUND: The number of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) positive patients and fatalities keeps rising. It is important to recognize risk factors for severe outcomes. Evidence linking vitamin D deficiency and the severity of COVID-19 is tangential but substantial - relating to race, obesity, and institutionalization.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the function of vitamin D and nutritional defense against infections such as COVID-19, which is the goal of this research.

METHODS: This study includes observational cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that estimated variances in serum levels of vitamin D among patients with mild or severe forms of COVID-19, and in patients who died or were discharged from hospitals. Studies that assessed the risk of developing severe disorder or death in patients with vitamin D deficiency, defined as levels of vitamin D< 20 ng/mL, were also encompassed.

RESULTS: In a retrospective study on 464,383 individuals, results showed that individuals who had the highest risks for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection, and for COVID-19 severity when infected, had vitamin D levels < 30 nmol/L; Odds Ratio (OR) were 1.246 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.210-1.304] and 1.513 [95%CI: 1.230-1.861], respectively. Additionally, in a retrospective observational study of 191,779 individuals in the USA. The SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was greater in the 39,190 subjects with vitamin D < 20 ng/mL [12.5%, 95% C.I. 12.2-12.8%] than in the 27,870 subjects with sufficient serum vitamin D levels [8.1%, 95% C.I. 7.8-8.4%] and in the 12,321 subjects with serum vitamin D ⩾ 55 ng/mL [5.9%, 95% C.I. 5.5-6.4%].

CONCLUSION: People hospitalized for COVID-19 should be checked for vitamin D status and supplemented, and high-dose-in testing should be considered in the recovery trial. More importantly, screening for malnutrition and the administration of the best nutritional supplements are essential for the immune system of the human body to function as it should be. Thus, nutritional supplementation is crucial for people with risk factors as well as older adults with compromised immune systems.

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