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The Impact of Environmental and Occupational Noise on Maternal and Perinatal Pregnancy Outcomes.

IMPORTANCE: Pregnant women are exposed to both occupational and environmental noise during their pregnancy. The association between noise and adverse health outcomes is well known. Less is known about the relationship between noise and its effects on the embryo/fetus and pregnancy.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study is to review what is known about the effect(s) of environment and occupational noise during pregnancy on maternal and perinatal outcomes.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase) were searched from 1995-2023 with the only limitation being that the articles were in English. Studies were selected that examined associations between environmental and occupational noise and pregnancy outcome, maternal outcome, or perinatal outcome.

RESULTS: There were 233 articles identified. After reviewing all abstracts and selected full texts, 25 publications were used as the basis of this review. Multiple studies have been undertaken evaluating the effects of noise on embryonal/fetal growth, fetal development, maternal hypertension, gestational diabetes, and maternal anxiety and depression. The overall effects of occupational and environmental exposure on both fetal and maternal outcomes remain uncertain.

CONCLUSIONS: Further high-quality studies are needed to determine the association between noise and pregnancy outcomes.

RELEVANCE: Even though this review suggests a relationship between noise and maternal/fetal outcomes, confirmation will require well designed future studies.

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