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The role of annexins in central nervous system development and disease.

Annexins, a group of Ca2+ -dependent phospholipid-binding proteins, exert diverse roles in neuronal development, normal central nervous system (CNS) functioning, neurological disorders, and CNS tumors. This paper reviews the roles of individual annexins (A1-A13) in these contexts. Annexins possess unique structural and functional features, such as Ca2+ -dependent binding to phospholipids, participating in membrane organization, and modulating cell signaling. They are implicated in various CNS processes, including endocytosis, exocytosis, and stabilization of plasma membranes. Annexins exhibit dynamic roles in neuronal development, influencing differentiation, proliferation, and synaptic formation in CNS tissues. Notably, annexins such as ANXA1 and ANXA2 play roles in apoptosis and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, and depression, involve annexin dysregulation, influencing neuroinflammation, blood-brain barrier integrity, and stress responses. Moreover, annexins contribute to the pathogenesis of CNS tumors, either promoting or suppressing tumor growth, angiogenesis, and invasion. Annexin expression patterns vary across different CNS tumor types, providing potential prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. This review underscores the multifaceted roles of annexins in the CNS, highlighting their importance in normal functioning, disease progression, and potential therapeutic interventions.

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