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Traumatic Brain Injury and Risk of Schizophrenia and Other Non-mood Psychotic Disorders: Findings From a Large Inpatient Database in the United States.

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is linked with an increased risk of schizophrenia and other non-mood psychotic disorders (psychotic disorders), but the prevalence and contributing factors of these psychiatric conditions post-TBI remain unclear. This study explores this link to identify key risk factors in TBI patients.

METHODS: We used the 2017 National Inpatient Sample dataset. Patients with a history of TBI (n = 26 187) were identified and matched 1:1 by age and gender to controls without TBI (n = 26 187). We compared clinical and demographic characteristics between groups. The association between TBI and psychotic disorders was explored using the logistic regression analysis, and results were presented as Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

RESULTS: Psychotic disorders were significantly more prevalent in TBI patients (10.9%) vs controls (4.7%) (P < .001). Adjusted odds of psychotic disorders were 2.2 times higher for TBI patients (95% CI 2.05-2.43, P < .001). Male TBI patients had higher psychotic disorders prevalence than females (11.9% vs 8.4%). Younger age, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, personality disorders, and intellectual disability are associated with an increased risk of psychotic disorders in men.

CONCLUSION: Our study found that hospitalized TBI patients had 2.2 times higher odds of Schizophrenia non-mood psychotic disorder, indicating an association. This highlights the need for early screening of psychotic disorders and intervention in TBI patients, calling for more research.

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