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Precision medicine in inflammatory bowel disease.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an incurable disease characterized by remission-relapse cycles throughout its course. Both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two main forms of IBD, exhibit tendency to develop complications and substantial heterogeneity in terms of frequency and severity of relapse, thus posing great challenges to the clinical management for IBD. Current treatment strategies are effective in different ways in induction and maintenance therapies for IBD. Recent advances in studies of genetics, pharmacogenetics, proteomics and microbiome provide a strong driving force for identifying molecular markers of prognosis and treatment response, which should help clinicians manage IBD patients more effectively, and then, improve clinical outcomes and reduce treatment costs of patients. In this review, we summarize and discuss precision medicine in IBD, focusing on predictive markers of disease course and treatment response, and monitoring indices during therapeutic drug monitoring.

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