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Comprehensive mapping of saliva by multiomics in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

Nephrology 2024 April 19
AIM: Saliva can reflect an individual's physiological status or susceptibility to systemic disease. However, little attention has been given to salivary analysis in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS). We aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of saliva from INS children.

METHODS: A total of 18 children (9 children with INS and 9 normal controls) were recruited. Saliva was collected from each INS patient in the acute and remission phases. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, widely targeted metabolomics, and 4D-DIA proteomics were performed.

RESULTS: Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were significantly enriched in the pretreatment group compared with the normal control group, while Bacteroidota and Proteobacteria were significantly decreased. A total of 146 metabolites were identified as significantly different between INS children before treatment and normal controls, which covers 17 of 23 categories. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed three significantly enriched pathways, including ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis (P < 0.05). A total of 389 differentially expressed proteins were selected between INS children before treatment and normal controls. According to the KEGG and GO enrichment analyses of the KOGs, abnormal ribosome structure and function and humoral immune disorders were the most prominent differences between INS patients and normal controls in the proteomic analysis.

CONCLUSION: Oral microbiota dysbiosis may modulate the metabolic profile of saliva in children with INS. It is hypothesized that children with INS might have "abnormal ribosome structure and function" and "humoral immune disorders".

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